The announcement of a £9 per hour living wage by 2020 came as something of a surprise
George Osborne has set out plans to cut welfare spending and increase some taxes - but also boost the minimum wage - in the first Tory Budget since 1996.
The Living Wage, which starts at £7.20 next April and rises to £9 an hour by 2020, will be compulsory and replaces the minimum wage which is now £6.50.
The chancellor scrapped student grants, cut housing benefit for under-21s and froze working age benefits.
Labour leader Harriet Harman said the Budget made "working people worse off".
Measures announced in the Budget statement include:
Mr Osborne unveiled a downgraded growth forecast for the UK this year, of 2.4%, and pushed back the date at which the UK's public finances would move into surplus by a year to 2019/20.
The Office for Budget Responsibility said public spending would be £83bn higher over the next five years than Mr Osborne said in his March Budget - and the £24,6bn tax cuts announced in the Budget would dwarfed by £47.2bn in tax rises. Welfare cuts would add up to £35bn over the next five years.
Paul Johnson, of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, said Mr Osborne's package was "overall a tax raising Budget" but he had not been "as harsh as he said he was going to be" on welfare cuts, which would be spread over a longer period.
In his speech the chancellor said the UK economy today was "fundamentally stronger than it was five years ago", with living standards rising strongly.
And his Budget was "a plan for Britain for the next five years to keep moving us from a low wage, high tax, high welfare economy; to the higher wage, lower tax, lower welfare country we intend to create".
Chancellor George Osborne says that student maintenance grants will be replaced by loans from 2017
The chancellor announced a major shake up for Vehicle Excise Duty (VED)
In a surprise announcement at the end of his speech, he said workers aged over 25 would be entitled to a "national living wage" from next April, to soften the impact of in-work benefit cuts.
The current minimum wage, which applies to those aged over 21, is £6.50. Those entitled to the "living wage" will get £7.20 and that will rise to £9 an hour by 2020. Labour had vowed to increase the minimum wage to £8 by 2020 during the general election campaign.
The move is expected to boost the wages of six million people but may cause firms to recruit more under 25s, who will be on a lower rate, according to the Office for Budget Responsibility.
Mr Osborne announced that the £26,000 benefit cap - the amount one household can claim in a year - would be cut to £23,000 in London and £20,000 in the rest of the country.
The government will also make local authority and housing association tenants in England who earn more than £30,000 - or £40,000 in London - pay up to the market rent, but rents in the social housing sector will be reduced by 1% a year for the next four years.
The chancellor unveiled "just under half" of the £37bn in cuts he says are needed to clear the deficit, with £12bn from the welfare budget and £5bn from a crackdown on tax avoidance. The remainder of the savings will come from cuts to government departments to be announced in the autumn.
George Osborne was delivering his seventh Budget
Work and Pensions Secretary cheers the National Living Wage announcement
There was standing room only in the House of Commons
The chancellor announced an estimated £4.5bn cut to the £30bn-a-year tax credits system, which tops up the wages of low paid workers, significantly reducing the amount someone can earn before they start losing benefit money.
Support for children through tax credits and universal credits will also be limited to two children, affecting children born after April 2017 unless the third child is the result of twins, triplets or other multiple birth.
Tax credits are a type of welfare payment, introduced by Gordon Brown in 2003, that allow unemployed people to keep some of their benefits when they get a low paid job and are also paid to disabled workers and those responsible for children. They are due to be phased out when Universal Credit is introduced.
In other Budget announcements, the chancellor increased the personal allowance - the amount people can earn before they start paying tax.
He announced reforms to the "non dom" tax status, saying "anyone resident in the UK for more than 15 of the past 20 years will now pay full British taxes on all worldwide income and gains" from April 2017.
Mr Osborne said the NHS would receive a further £8bn by 2020, on top of £2bn already committed.
In her Budget response, Labour's acting leader Harriet Harman said:"The Chancellor is said to be liberated without the ties of coalition holding him back but what we have heard today suggests his rhetoric is liberated from reality."
Harriet Harman said the Budget "will make working people worse off"
"A Budget for working people? How can you make that claim when you are making working people worse off," she said.
"You are making working people worse off by cutting tax credits and scrapping grants for the poorest students."
UKIP MP Douglas Carswell said it might become "politically unsustainable" to keep public sector pay rises frozen at 1% for four years if the economy grows.
But he welcomed cuts to tax credits, saying "we've got to unravel the disastrous system that Gordon Brown created" where public money subsidises big firms paying low wages.
The SNP's economy spokesman and deputy leader, Stewart Hosie, said it was a "broadly bad" Budget, which would hit the "the poorest and the most vulnerable" and do nothing to improve productivity or encourage innovation.
Business groups gave Mr Osborne's Living Wage announcement a mixed reaction, with the Institute of Directors saying it was "time for companies to increase pay" but the CBI said the government was taking "a big gamble" on wage increases industry might not be able to deliver.
The TUC welcomed the Living Wage announcement but said Mr Osborne was "giving with one hand taking with the other" and "massive cuts in support for working people will hit families with children hardest".